Kurs:Mathematik für Anwender (Osnabrück 2011-2012)/Teil I/Arbeitsblatt 10/en/latex

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\zwischenueberschrift{Warm-up-exercises}




\inputexercise
{}
{

The telephone companies $A,B$ and $C$ compete for a market, where the market customers in a year $j$ are given by the customers-tuple
\mathl{K_j=(a_j,b_j,c_j)}{} (where $a_j$ is the number of customers of $A$ in the year $j$ etc.). There are customers passing from one provider to another one during a year. \aufzaehlungdrei{The customers of $A$ remain for $80\%$ with $A$ while $10\%$ of them goes to $B$ and the same percentage goes to $C$. }{The customers of $B$ remain for $70\%$ with $B$ while $10\%$ of them goes to $A$ and $20\%$ goes to $C$. }{The customers of $C$ remain for $50\%$ with $C$ while $20\%$ of them goes to $A$ and $30\%$ goes to $B$. }

a) Determine the linear map (i.e. the matrix), which expresses the customers-tuple
\mathl{K_{j+1}}{} with respect to $K_j$.

b) Which customers-tuple arises from the customers-tuple
\mathl{(12000,10000,8000)}{} within one year?

c) Which customers-tuple arises from the customers-tuple
\mathl{(10000,0,0)}{} in four years?

}
{} {}




\inputexercise
{}
{

Let $K$ be a field and let \mathkor {} {V} {and} {W} {} be vector spaces over $K$ of dimensions \mathkor {} {n} {and} {m} {.} Let \maabbdisp {\varphi} {V} {W } {} be a linear map, described by the matrix
\mathl{M \in \operatorname{Mat}_{ m \times n } (K)}{} with respect to two bases. Prove that $\varphi$ is surjective if and only if the columns of the matrix form a system of generators for $K^m$.

}
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\inputexercise
{}
{

Let $K$ be a field and let \mathkor {} {V} {and} {W} {} be two $K$-vector spaces. Let \maabbdisp {\varphi} {V} {W } {} be a bijective linear map. Prove that also the inverse map \maabbdisp {\varphi^{-1}} {W} {V } {} is linear.

}
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\inputexercise
{}
{

Determine the inverse matrix of
\mathdisp {M = \begin{pmatrix} 2 & 7 \\ -4 & 9 \end{pmatrix}} { . }

}
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\inputexercise
{}
{

Determine the inverse matrix of
\mathdisp {M = \begin{pmatrix} 1 & 2 & 3 \\ 6 & -1 & -2 \\0 & 3 & 7 \end{pmatrix}} { . }

}
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\inputexercise
{}
{

Determine the inverse matrix of the complex matrix
\mathdisp {M = \begin{pmatrix} 2+3i & 1-i \\ 5-4i & 6-2i \end{pmatrix}} { . }

}
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\inputexercise
{}
{

a) Determine if the complex matrix
\mathdisp {M = \begin{pmatrix} 2+5i & 1-2i \\ 3-4i & 6-2i \end{pmatrix}} { }
is invertible.

b) Find a solution to the inhomogeneous linear system of equations
\mathdisp {M \begin{pmatrix} z_1 \\z_2 \end{pmatrix} = \begin{pmatrix} 54 +72 i \\0 \end{pmatrix}} { . }

}
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\inputexercise
{}
{

Prove that the matrix
\mathdisp {\begin{pmatrix} 0 & 0 & k+2 & k+1 \\ 0 & 0 & k+1 & k \\ -k & k +1 & 0 & 0 \\ k +1 & -(k + 2) & 0 & 0 \end{pmatrix}} { }
for all $k$ is the inverse of itself.

}
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\inputexercise
{}
{

We consider the linear map \maabbeledisp {\varphi} {K^3} {K^2 } {\begin{pmatrix} x \\y\\ z \end{pmatrix} } { \begin{pmatrix} 1 & 2 & 5 \\ 4 & 1 & 1 \end{pmatrix} \begin{pmatrix} x \\y\\ z \end{pmatrix} } {.} Let $U \subseteq K^3$ be the subspace of $K^3$ defined by the linear equation $2x+3y+4z=0$, and let $\psi$ be the restriction of $\varphi$ on $U$. On $U$ are given vectors of the form
\mathdisp {u=(0,1,a),\, v=(1,0,b) \text{ and } w=(1,c,0)} { . }
Compute the "change of basis" matrix between the bases
\mathdisp {\mathfrak{ b }_1= v,w , \, \mathfrak{ b }_2 = u,w \text{ and } \mathfrak{ b }_3 = u,v} { }
of $U$ and the transformation matrix of $\psi$ with respect to these three bases \zusatzklammer {and the standard basis of $K^2$} {} {.}

}
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\inputexercise
{}
{

Prove that the elementary matrices are invertible. What are the inverse matrices of the elementary matrices?

}
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\inputexercise
{}
{

Let $K$ be a field and $M$ a $n \times n$-matrix with entries in $K$. Prove that the multiplication by the elementary matrices from the left with M has the following effects. \aufzaehlungdrei{$V_{ij} \circ M =$ exchange of the $i$-th and the $j$-th row of $M$. }{$(S_k (s)) \circ M =$ multiplication of the $k$-th row of $M$ by $s$. }{$(A_{ij}(a)) \circ M =$ addition of $a$-times the $j$-th row of $M$ to the $i$-th row (\mathlk{i \neq j}{}). }

}
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\inputexercise
{}
{

Describe what happens when a matrix is multiplied from the right by an elementary matrix.

}
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\zwischenueberschrift{Hand-in-exercises}




\inputexercise
{3}
{

Compute the inverse matrix of
\mathdisp {M = \begin{pmatrix} 2 & 3 & 2 \\ 5 & 0 & 4 \\1 & -2 & 3 \end{pmatrix}} { . }

}
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\inputexercise
{3}
{

Perform the procedure to find the inverse matrix of the matrix
\mathdisp {\begin{pmatrix} a & b \\ c & d \end{pmatrix}} { }
under the assumption that $ad-bc \neq 0$.

}
{} {}




\inputexercise
{6 (3+1+2)}
{

An animal population consists of babies (first year), freshers (second year), Halbstarke (third year), mature ones (fourth year) and veterans (fifth year), these animals can not become older. The total stock of these animals in a given year $j$ is given by a $5$-tuple
\mathl{B_j=(b_{1,j},b_{2,j},b_{3,j},b_{4,j},b_{5,j})}{.}

During a year
\mathl{7/8}{} of the babies become freshers,
\mathl{9/10}{} of the freshers become Halbstarke,
\mathl{5/6}{} of the Halbstarken become mature ones and
\mathl{2/3}{} of the mature ones reach the fifth year.

Babies and freshes can not reproduce yet, then they reach the sexual maturity and $10$ Halbstarke generate $5$ new pets and $10$ of the mature ones generate $8$ new babies, and the babies are born one year later.

a) Determine the linear map (i.e. the matrix), which expresses the total stock
\mathl{B_{j+1}}{} with respect to the stock
\mathl{B_{j}}{.}

b) What will happen to the stock
\mathl{(200,150,100,100,50)}{} in the next year?

c) What will happen to the stock
\mathl{(0,0,100,0,0)}{} in five years?

}
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\inputexercise
{3}
{

Let $z \in {\mathbb C}$ be a complex number and let \maabbeledisp {} {{\mathbb C}} {{\mathbb C} } {w} {zw } {,} be the multiplication map, which is a ${\mathbb C}$-linear map. How does the matrix related to this map with respect to the real basis \mathkor {} {1} {and} {i} {} look like? Let \mathkor {} {z_1} {and} {z_2} {} be two complex numbers with corresponding real matrices \mathkor {} {M_1} {and} {M_2} {}. Prove that the matrix product $M_2 \circ M_1$ is the real matrix corresponding to $z_1z_2$.

}
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