# Kurs:Mathematik für Anwender (Osnabrück 2011-2012)/Teil I/Arbeitsblatt 6/en

Zur Navigation springen Zur Suche springen

Warm-up-exercises

### Exercise

Compute the following product of matrices

${\begin{pmatrix}Z&E&I&L&E\\R&E&I&H&E\\H&O&R&I&Z\\O&N&T&A&L\end{pmatrix}}\cdot {\begin{pmatrix}S&E&I\\P&V&K\\A&E&A\\L&R&A\\T&T&L\end{pmatrix}}.$ ### Exercise

Compute over the complex numbers the following product of matrices

${\begin{pmatrix}2-{\mathrm {i} }&-1-3{\mathrm {i} }&-1\\{\mathrm {i} }&0&4-2{\mathrm {i} }\end{pmatrix}}{\begin{pmatrix}1+{\mathrm {i} }\\1-{\mathrm {i} }\\2+5{\mathrm {i} }\end{pmatrix}}.$ ### Exercise

Determine the product of matrices

$e_{i}\circ e_{j},$ where the ${}i$ -th standard vector

(of length ${}n$ ) is considered as a row vector and the ${}j$ -th standard vector (also of length ${}n$ ) is considered as a column vector.

### Exercise

Let ${}M$ be a ${}m\times n$ - matrix. Show that the product of matrices ${}Me_{j}$ , with the ${}j$ -th standard vector (regarded as column vector) is the ${}j$ -th column of ${}M$ . What is ${}e_{i}M$ , where ${}e_{i}$ is the ${}i$ -th standard vector (regarded as a row vector)?

### Exercise

Compute the product of matrices

${\begin{pmatrix}2+{\mathrm {i} }&1-{\frac {1}{2}}{\mathrm {i} }&4{\mathrm {i} }\\-5+7{\mathrm {i} }&{\sqrt {2}}+{\mathrm {i} }&0\end{pmatrix}}{\begin{pmatrix}-5+4{\mathrm {i} }&3-2{\mathrm {i} }\\{\sqrt {2}}-{\mathrm {i} }&e+\pi {\mathrm {i} }\\1&-{\mathrm {i} }\end{pmatrix}}{\begin{pmatrix}1+{\mathrm {i} }\\2-3{\mathrm {i} }\end{pmatrix}}$ according to the two possible parantheses.

For the following statements we will soon give a simple proof using the relationship between matrices and linear maps.

### Exercise

Show that the multiplication of matrices is associative. More precisely: Let ${}K$ be a field and let ${}A$ be an ${}m\times n$ -matrix, ${}B$ an ${}n\times p$ -matrix and ${}C$ a ${}p\times r$ -matrix over ${}K$ . Show that ${}(AB)C=A(BC)$ .

For a matrix ${}M$ we denote by ${}M^{n}$ the ${}n$ -th product of ${}M$ with iself. This is also called the ${}n$ -th power of the matrix.

### Exercise

Compute for the matrix

$M={\begin{pmatrix}2&4&6\\1&3&5\\0&1&2\end{pmatrix}}$ the powers

$M^{i},\,i=1,\ldots ,4.$ ### Exercise

Let $K$ be a field and let $V$ and $W$ be two vector spaces over $K$ . Show that the product

$V\times W$ is also a $K$ -vector space.

### Exercise

Let ${}K$ be a field and ${}I$ an index set. Show that

$K^{I}:=\operatorname {Maps} \,(I,K)$ with pointwise addition and scalar multiplication is a ${}K$ -vector space.

### Exercise

Let ${}K$ be a field and let

${\begin{matrix}a_{11}x_{1}+a_{12}x_{2}+\cdots +a_{1n}x_{n}&=&0\\a_{21}x_{1}+a_{22}x_{2}+\cdots +a_{2n}x_{n}&=&0\\\vdots &\vdots &\vdots \\a_{m1}x_{1}+a_{m2}x_{2}+\cdots +a_{mn}x_{n}&=&0\end{matrix}}$ be a system of linear equations over ${}K$ . Show that the set of all solutions of the system is a subspace of ${}K^{n}$ . How is this solution space related to the solution spaces of the individual equations?

### Exercise

Show that the addition and the scalar multiplication of a vector space ${}V$ can be restricted to a subspace and that this subspace with the inherited structures of ${}V$ is a vector space itself.

### Exercise

Let ${}K$ be a field and let ${}V$ be a ${}K$ -vector space. Let ${}U,W\subseteq V$ be two subspaces of ${}V$ . Prove that the union ${}U\cup W$ is a subspace of ${}V$ if and only if ${}U\subseteq W$ or ${}W\subseteq U$ .

Hand-in-exercises

### Exercise (3 points)

Compute over the complex numbers the following product of matrices

${\begin{pmatrix}3-2{\mathrm {i} }&1+5{\mathrm {i} }&0\\7{\mathrm {i} }&2+{\mathrm {i} }&4-{\mathrm {i} }\end{pmatrix}}{\begin{pmatrix}1-2{\mathrm {i} }&-{\mathrm {i} }\\3-4{\mathrm {i} }&2+3{\mathrm {i} }\\5-7{\mathrm {i} }&2-{\mathrm {i} }\end{pmatrix}}.$ ### Exercise (4 points)

We consider the matrix

$M={\begin{pmatrix}0&a&b&c\\0&0&d&e\\0&0&0&f\\0&0&0&0\end{pmatrix}}$ over a field ${}K$ . Show that the fourth power of ${}M$ is ${}0$ , that is

$M^{4}=MMMM=0.$ ### Exercise (3 points)

Let ${}K$ be a field and let ${}V$ be a ${}K$ -vector space. Show that the following properties hold (where $\lambda \in K$ and $v\in V$ ).

1. We have ${}0v=0$ .
2. We have ${}\lambda 0=0$ .
3. We have${}(-1)v=-v$ .
4. If ${}\lambda \neq 0$ and ${}v\neq 0$ then ${}\lambda v\neq 0$ .

### Exercise (3 points)

Give an example of a vector space ${}V$ and of three subsets of ${}V$ which satisfy two of the subspace axioms, but not the third.