Didaktikkolloquium Englisch (8.1.2007)[Bearbeiten]
Gehring entwirft nach einer Aufzählung verschiedener Planungselemente des Unterrichts, die u.a. die Lernziele, Verfahren und Differenzierung beinhalten, den Ablauf einer idealtypischen Unterrichtseinheit, den er "Artikulation" nennt.
- sich auf Englisch einstellen (vertraute Texte hören/nachvollziehen, vermittels gesicherter Wissensbestände Sprachaktivitäten entfalten, Sprechanlässe ohne große kognitive Anstrengung)
- Aktivierungsformen: Lernspiele oder Lieder
- motivational bedeutsam, da sich durch die inhaltliche Konzentration auf Bekanntes dem Lerner Aktivierungsmöglichkeiten eröffnen
- lerntheoretische Begründung durch den zusätzlichen Verankerungseffekt phonologischer, lexikalischer oder syntaktischer Mittel
- führen zur Wortschatz-, Struktur-, Text-, Projektarbeit oder zu umfangreicheren Sprachaufgaben hin.
- Ist das Stundenziel die Anwendung eines begrenzten neuen Wortschatzes, einer spezifischen Struktur oder geht es um linguistisches Textverständnis, wird diese Phase situativ eingeleitet. Man konstruiert, medial unterstützt, einen kontextuellen Rahmen mit Bezug zu alltagskulturelll authentischen bzw. den Erfahrungen der Schüler nahen Situationen
- Absicht: Aufrufen von mentalen Schemata und Scripts
- indet im kontextuellen Rahmen statt
- Schüler nehmen prizipiell rezeptiv teil: Sie verfolgen die Semantisierung des neuen Wortschatzes seitens der lehrkraft oder eines Mediums, vollziehen typische Verwendungskontexte der Schwerpunktstruktur gedanklich nach, versuchen sich anhand einiger weniger Leitimpulse an der Dekodierung der globalen, auditiv oder visuell wahrnehmbaren Textinformation
- Zentral ist die Unterstützung der Verstehensleistung druch Dekodierungshilfen über mediale vermittler
- Einfache Schülertätigkeiten wie das Imitieren einzelner lexikalischer Einheiten, nonverbales Reagieren per Handzeichen durchbrechen die Lehrerzentriertheit in dieser Phase.
- aufbereitetes Sprachmaterial, damit sich die Schüler in Segmenten damit beschäftigen können
- sicheres Vertrautwerden mit dem Neuen
- In sprachbezogenen Unterrichtseinheiten ist das Geschehen auf das Festigen und mentale Verankern des vorgängig eingeprägten Sprachmaterials gerichtet, in inhaltsbezogenen auf genaueres Verstehen
- mündliche sowie schriftliche Übungsabläufe unterschiedlichen, aufsteigenden Schwierigkeitsgrades mit wechselnden Tätigkeits aufforderungen primär reproduktiven Charakters
- Bearbeitung auch in variierenden Arbeitsformen möglich
- Verwendung des Sprachmaterials in nicht behandelten Zusammenhängen
- Tranferkontexte gewährleiten eine Integration in den gesicherten Redemittelbestand.
- komplexe Verwendungskontexte wie Dialoge, role plays, Simulationen, information gap activities, flow charts, spielerische Aktivitäten, Projekte, vielfältige Schreibanlässe (Briefe, analoge und serielle Produktion literarischer Texte, schriftliches Erzählen von Bildergeschichten, Dokumentation von Projektergebnissen.
- Diskussion der Vor-und Nachteile dieses Schemas sowie dessen Berechtigung bei der Planung von Unterrichtseinheiten.
Task based Approach (slightly abridged from Müller-Hartmann/Schocker-v.Ditfurth)[Bearbeiten]
Many teachers still seem to belief in an approach that views language learning as a linear process where discrete language items are succesively put together as building blocks of the new language. The task-based approach to syllabus and curriculum design is different in that it organizes activities in which language is used for carrying out meaningful tasks to promote learning. Tasks provide a methodological tool to organize interaction in the target language by allowing the teacher to select and sequence activities in the social context of the classroom. Nunan defines task as a "piece of classroom work which involves learners in comprehending, manipulating, producing or interacting in the target language while their attention is principally focused on meaning rather than on form." The Common European Framework supports the combination of focus on meaning and form in TBLL: " a changing balance needs to be established between attention to meaning and form, fluenacy and accuracy, in the overall selection and sequencing of tasks so that both task performance and language learning progress can be facilitated."
PPP versus TBLL
In the PPP approach (presentation, practice, production) the presentation of linguistic material is followed by practice activities to help learners to quickly produce discrete language items. In the production stage learners are offered opportunities to freely use the language. But "it has been the experience of many teachers that it is very difficult to control the language which can occur naturqally in such activities. Students will use whatever language resources they have at their command. Directing their attention to the form in efforts to persuade them to practise it while they are focused on the messages they are trying to communicate to their peers is distracting and counterproductive in terms of fluency." TBLL on the other hand focuses on meaningful language use, seeing the learning process as one of learning through doing - it is primarily engaging in meaning that the the learner's system is encouraged to develop. Learners may choose whatever language the have available and they learn to take risks by using language creatively. Another disadvantage of PPP is that teachers often expect learners to be able to produce language that they just have presented more or less immediately. It may raise unrealistic expectations of what learners can achieve.
Nunan's framework of communicative tasks
- Goals comprise all the aspects that lead to intercultural comkpetence, such as knowledge of the world, socio-cultural knowledge, mediating skills, learning skills, basic practical skills.
- Input involves the language data in oral or written form learners need to work on. While textbooks often provide specifically written materials for the classroom, teachers need to look out for authentic materials.
- The activities describe what learners actually do with the material, practising their language skills in an integrated way (asking questions, listening, writing down results...)
- Teacher and learner roles influence the three factors above. The teacher designs the task in form of a 'task-as-workplan'. Learners interprete tasks in relation to their own sociocultural backgrounds and the specific settings or teaching/learnind situations of the classrooms they are working on. Consequently, they create the 'task-in -process: Both teachers and learners bring their own ideas to the task process.
- The Setting plays n important part in task design as well. Usually, the task takes place in the classroom, but it could also be done outside of the classroom, e.g. when learners are interviewing people. Scaffolding during the activities and the question of social forms are decisive. Learners usually profit more from doing tasks in pairs or small groups since they negociate the language data, helping each other.
TBLL vs PPP[Bearbeiten]
PPP (Present Practice Produce)
- A PPP lesson would proceed in the following manner.
- First, the teacher presents an item of language in a clear context to get across its meaning. This could be done in a variety of ways: through a text, a situation build, a dialogue etc.
- Students are then asked to complete a controlled practice stage, where they may have to repeat target items through choral and individual drilling, fill gaps or match halves of sentences. All of this practice demands that the student uses the language correctly and helps them to become more comfortable with it.
- Finally, they move on to the production stage, sometimes called the 'free practice' stage. Students are given a communication task such as a role play and are expected to produce the target language and use any other language that has already been learnt and is suitable for completing it.
- The problems with PPP
- Students can give the impression that they are comfortable with the new language as they are producing it accurately in the class. Often though a few lessons later, students will either not be able to produce the language correctly or even won't produce it at all.
- Students will often produce the language but overuse the target structure so that it sounds completely unnatural.
- Students may not produce the target language during the free practice stage because they find they are able to use existing language resources to complete the task.
A Task-based approach
- Task -based Learning offers an alternative for language teachers. In a task-based lesson the teacher doesn't pre-determine what language will be studied, the lesson is based around the completion of a central task and the language studied is determined by what happens as the students complete it. The lesson follows certain stages.
- The teacher introduces the topic and gives the students clear instructions on what they will have to do at the task stage and might help the students to recall some language that may be useful for the task. The pre-task stage can also often include playing a recording of people doing the task. This gives the students a clear model of what will be expected of them. The students can take notes and spend time preparing for the task.
- The students complete a task in pairs or groups using the language resources that they have as the teacher monitors and offers encouragement.
- Students prepare a short oral or written report to tell the class what happened during their task. They then practice what they are going to say in their groups. Meanwhile the teacher is available for the students to ask for advice to clear up any language questions they may have.
- Students then report back to the class orally or read the written report. The teacher chooses the order of when students will present their reports and may give the students some quick feedback on the content. At this stage the teacher may also play a recording of others doing the same task for the students to compare.
- The teacher then highlights relevant parts from the text of the recording for the students to analyse. They may ask students to notice interesting features within this text. The teacher can also highlight the language that the students used during the report phase for analysis.
- Finally, the teacher selects language areas to practise based upon the needs of the students and what emerged from the task and report phases. The students then do practice activities to increase their confidence and make a note of useful language.
- The advantages of TBL
- Unlike a PPP approach, the students are free of language control. In all three stages they must use all their language resources rather than just practising one pre-selected item.
- A natural context is developed from the students' experiences with the language that is personalised and relevant to them. With PPP it is necessary to create contexts in which to present the language and sometimes they can be very unnatural.
- The students will have a much more varied exposure to language with TBL. They will be exposed to a whole range of lexical phrases, collocations and patterns as well as language forms.
- The language explored arises from the students' needs. This need dictates what will be covered in the lesson rather than a decision made by the teacher or the coursebook.
- It is a strong communicative approach where students spend a lot of time communicating. PPP lessons seem very teacher-centred by comparison. Just watch how much time the students spend communicating during a task-based lesson.
- It is enjoyable and motivating.
Zusatzfrage bzw. -auftrag[Bearbeiten]
- Skizzierung eines Beispiels für TBLL
- Präsentation beider Modelle im Plenum
- Gehring, Wolfgang: Englische Fachdidaktik: eine Einführung / von Wolfgang Gehring. Berlin: Erich Schmidt, 1999.
- Müller-Hartmann, Andreas und Marita Schocker-v. Ditfurth: Introduction to English Language Teaching. Stuttgart, Klett, 2004.