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Themenwebsite: Country-by-Country Reporting (CBCR)

Einleitung[Bearbeiten]

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Bibliothekarische Repräsentation des Themenfeldes[Bearbeiten]

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  • Thematische Einordnung: Maßnahme zur Erschwerung von Steuervermeidung
  • Verstichwortung:
  • Bekannte #Tags:
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Quellen und Ressourcen im #TaxCtrl Projekt, im Wikiverse und im Web2.0[Bearbeiten]

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CBCR im Wikiverse[Bearbeiten]

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Das Thema im #TaxCtrl Web2.0[Bearbeiten]

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Das Thema im Web2.0 allgemein[Bearbeiten]

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Sammeln und Brainstorming[Bearbeiten]

Hier kann gesammelt, assoziert und nachgedacht werden. Bearbeitungshinweis: Für jeden neuen Eintrag eine Überschrift. Quellenangaben wenn möglich auf den entsprechenden social-bookmarking Eintrag richten


Einleitend[Bearbeiten]

anker test

Allg.[Bearbeiten]

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Countrybycountry reportingis in essence a simple idea. All it demands is that multinational corporationspublish a profit and loss account and limited balance sheet and cash flow information for almost every jurisdictionin which they trade as part of their annual financial statements.Such a simple request has been the subject of much Allgemeines - http:// www.taxresearch.org.uk/ Documents/ CBC2012.pdf


It is a simple fact that at present due to the absence of published accounts for very large parts of the world’s trade we know remarkably little about trade flows, who controls them, what impact they have, what risks they give rise to and how those risks might be better managed.It is, as a result, and for example, impossible to build models for world trade based on existing data where outflows equal inflows even though, very logically, it is an accounting definition that such balance must exist. Allgemeines - http:// www.taxresearch.org.uk/ Documents/ CBC2012.pdf

http:// www.taxresearch.org.uk/ Documents/ CBC2012.pdf


There are currently two accounting problems when multinational corporations are structured as groups. Firstly, the requirement for them to report on their activities on a geographical basis is very limited indeed. Compulsorily they have only to report the split in their activities between the activity in the parent company location and all other locations combined, and many now do little more than that so it is very difficult to work out what they do, where.Secondly, when a group of companies are under common ownership a particular form of accounting is adopted. This is called consolidated accounting. Accounts of this sort are prepared by the parent company of a group for issue to its shareholders. The consolidated accounts effectivelyshow the trading of the group as a whole, and the assets and liabilities and cashflows of the group as a whole. They do this by making an assumption that the entity is just one company even though this is not, of course, the case in legal fact. This is achieved by eliminating from view all the trades between group companies within theconsolidated accounts. This is, of course, possible because they should net out with each other. What is left for presentation to the shareholders is a set of accounts showing what the trade of the group would have been if there were only one company in it, even though there are groups with more than 3,000 companies under common control. Allgemeines - (Murphy, R: Holding multinational … 2009, <http://www.bibsonomy.org/bibtex/763102cbcd423a097b5d671ad0b5457e>


Trade matters.60% of world trade is intra-group. Allgemeines - (Murphy, R: Holding multinational … 2009, <http://www.bibsonomy.org/bibtex/763102cbcd423a097b5d671ad0b5457e>


CBCR ist ein Konzept, das seit etwa 10 Jahren stark von dem britischen Steueraktivisten und Buchhalter Richard Murphy mitgeprägt wurde. - -


The ideas that are included in country-by-country reportingwere first proposed in a paper15written by Richard Murphy and published by the Association for Accountancy and Business Affairs in the UK in January 2003. Allgemeines - (Murphy, R: Holding multinational … 2009, <http://www.bibsonomy.org/bibtex/763102cbcd423a097b5d671ad0b5457e>


an International Financial Reporting Standardon what has now been called country-by-country reportingbe created by the International Accounting Standards Board for use by all multinational corporations which have to comply with its regulations Allgemeines - (Murphy, R: Holding multinational … 2009, <http://www.bibsonomy.org/bibtex/763102cbcd423a097b5d671ad0b5457e>


Since we published our last briefing on tax

transparency and country‑by‑country reporting just over twelve months ago, the introduction of mandatory tax reporting rules has accelerated. The changes covered in this publication include revised guidelines for the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative, new EU rules for the banking industry, and final EU rules for the extractive and logging industries. We consider the legal challenge that has suspended the implementation of the US rules for reporting payments to governments and finally we look ahead to the discussions in the OECD and the EU on how country‑by‑country reporting might be developed for all MNCs.

Allgemeines pwc: Tax transparency and country-by-country reporting. Abgerufen am 2014-04-13..


Kontext:[Bearbeiten]

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Tax avoidance is a global problem. It involves the abusive exploitation of gaps and loopholes in domestic and international tax law that allow multinational companies (MNCs) to shift profits from country to country, often to or via tax havens, with the intention of reducing the tax they pay on some or all of their profits. Tax avoidance on such a large scale is facilitated by a lack of transparency in the way MNCs report and publish their accounts. Making MNC accounts more transparent would help tackle tax avoidance at very low cost. Kontext - (Murphy, R: Holding multinational … 2009, <http://www.bibsonomy.org/bibtex/763102cbcd423a097b5d671ad0b5457e>


Status quo At present most MNCs publish segmented information that breaks theirtrade down along product or division lines. However, MNCs are not required to publish geographic data, and there is no requirement to do so on a country-by-country basis. Despite publishing their accounts as if they are unified entities, MNCs are not taxed in this way. Each member company of the group is taxed individually. This makes it difficult to establish an overview of what is happening within a group of companies for tax purposes. Kontext - (Murphy, R: Holding multinational … 2009, <http://www.bibsonomy.org/bibtex/763102cbcd423a097b5d671ad0b5457e>


Legitimation des CBCR:[Bearbeiten]

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Privatwirtschaft profitiert von der Gesellschaft, da sie z.B. Haftungsbeschränkung ermöglicht, dafür sollten Unternehmen nicht nur Steuern bezahlen sondern auch den jeweiligen Staaten ausreichend Informationen zur Verfügung stellen, damit diese Risiken, die mit der wirtschaftlichen Aktivität des Unternehmens verbunden sind besser abschätzen zu können. Legitimation des CBCR - -


Firstly, it recognises that there is a licence to operate that has to be paid for. That payment is due in the form oftax Legitimation des CBCR - http:// www.taxresearch.org.uk/ Documents/ CBC2012.pdf


We think that the duty is not only to paytax, but to account for that payment, and that the accounting is in fact a part of the obligation dueto society in exchange for limited liabilitybecause it puts on record the risk that a community is exposing itself to by hosting the activities of a multinational corporation. Thisis almost impossible to determinewith regard to the activities of a multinational corporation without countrybycountry reporting, although it is entirely possible with solely national base Legitimation des CBCR - http:// www.taxresearch.org.uk/ Documents/ CBC2012.pdf


companies have many more duties besides those that they owe to their shareholders Legitimation des CBCR (Murphy, R: Holding multinational … 2009, <http://www.bibsonomy.org/bibtex/763102cbcd423a097b5d671ad0b5457e>


These other people to whom the company has a duty might include employees, suppliers and customers, governments, tax authorities, regulatory agencies, civil society, trade unions and the ordinary citizens of the places that provide the company with opportunity to trade for profit. Legitimation des CBCR Murphy, R: Holding multinational … 2009, <http://www.bibsonomy.org/bibtex/763102cbcd423a097b5d671ad0b5457e>


that MNCs do has enormous implications for the wellbeing of the world. Legitimation des CBCR (Murphy, R: Holding multinational … 2009, <http://www.bibsonomy.org/bibtex/763102cbcd423a097b5d671ad0b5457e>


Thirdly, having achieved these two aims countrybycountry reportinglets any state, its politicians, regulators and civil society assess the risk that they face and consider the exchange they are getting for URL Legitimation des CBCR http:// www.taxresearch.org.uk/ Documents/ CBC2012.pdf


That is information that has the power to create real change for the benefit of all who live in our world. That is why, dull as it might seem, we believe that this accounting reform is really very important indeed: important enough to get passionate about. Legitimation des CBCR (Murphy, R: Holding multinational … 2009, <http://www.bibsonomy.org/bibtex/763102cbcd423a097b5d671ad0b5457e>



  • CBCR sollten halte obligatorische Buchhaltungsinformationen behalten und nicht auf freiwilliger Selbstverpflichtung beruhen, wie dies bei der Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) der Fall ist.

* Warum ist CBCR wichtig?[Bearbeiten]

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Accountability matters.A company cannot be accountable unless it can be identified. This means that the names an MNC uses locally must be on public record. Too often they are not. CbC reporting names local subsidiaries Warum ist CBCR wichtig? (Murphy, R: Holding multinational … 2009, <http://www.bibsonomy.org/bibtex/763102cbcd423a097b5d671ad0b5457e>)


Corruption matters. Warum ist CBCR wichtig? Murphy, R: Holding multinational … 2009, <http://www.bibsonomy.org/bibtex/763102cbcd423a097b5d671ad0b5457e>


Where you are matters.Some countries are politically unstable. If acompany trades there shareholders should know. Warum ist CBCR wichtig? Murphy, R: Holding multinational … 2009, <http://www.bibsonomy.org/bibtex/763102cbcd423a097b5d671ad0b5457e>


Let them appraise the governance risks a corporation takes. Almost all major corporate failures in recent times have been associated with intra-group trading, complex group structures and tax haven activity. Allof this is disclosed by country-by-country reporting, and as such it would provide a new perspective on governance risk; Warum ist CBCR wichtig? Murphy, R: Holding multinational … 2009, <http://www.bibsonomy.org/bibtex/763102cbcd423a097b5d671ad0b5457e>


Zielsetzungen:[Bearbeiten]

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"transfer misspricing", als wichtiges Mittel der Steuervermeidung, erschweren. Zielsetzungen http:// www.taxresearch.org.uk/ Documents/ CBC2012.pdf


indicate the level of tax compliance Zielsetzungen Murphy, R: Holding multinational … 2009, <http://www.bibsonomy.org/bibtex/763102cbcd423a097b5d671ad0b5457e>


Man weiß erstaunlich wenig über den internationalen Waren und Geldverkehr. Mithilfe des CBCR ließen sich gesellschaftliche Risiken besser abschätzen. Zielsetzungen


Durch die verbesserte Informationslage und Transparenz würde Misstrauen abgebaut und die Bereitschaft international zu agieren erhöht. Investoren könnten Risiken besser abschätzen. Zielsetzungen


People matter.MNC accounts include statements on the number of employees a company has and their aggregate remuneration. CbC would require this statement for every country in which an MNC operates. This would provide invaluable information on labour conditions. Zielsetzungen Murphy, R: Holding multinational … 2009, <http://www.bibsonomy.org/bibtex/763102cbcd423a097b5d671ad0b5457e>


Konkret - What will country-by-countryreportinglook like?[Bearbeiten]

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Durch das CBCR (nach Murphy) sollen Informationen zu folgenden Themen erhoben werden: In which countries does a multinational company operate, Tochterfirmen, die Göße des Multis, Ort und Größenordnung der getätigten Investitionen, Wo werden Gewinne ausgewiesen, wo werden Steuern bezahlt, intra-group-trading, Rohstoffabbau, Human Ressources, Nachhaltigkeit Konkret http:// www.taxresearch.org.uk/ Documents/ CBC2012.pdf


What will country-by-country reporting cost us?[Bearbeiten]

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no one yet knows Kosten Murphy, R: Holding multinational … 2009


[...] One major audit firm suggested that the cost ofauditing a major multinational company might increase by at least twenty five per cent as a consequenceof country-by-country reporting. Institutional investors who became aware of the audit approach of the firm in question as a consequence of thisdiscussion were, however, of the opinion that this cost would be more than justified [1] Kosten Murphy, R: Holding multinational … 2009


Was würde CBCR bieten?[Bearbeiten]

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internal supply chains Outcome von CBCR Murphy, R: Holding multinational … 2009, <http://www.bibsonomy.org/bibtex/763102cbcd423a097b5d671ad0b5457e>


Allow appraisal of the sustainability of the tax charge Outcome von CBCR Murphy, R: Holding multinational … 2009, <http://www.bibsonomy.org/bibtex/763102cbcd423a097b5d671ad0b5457e>


EITI process is enhanced as a result. Outcome von CBCR Murphy, R: Holding multinational … 2009, <http://www.bibsonomy.org/bibtex/763102cbcd423a097b5d671ad0b5457e>


For employees […]Assess whether the company is a good employer […] Use objective data when pursuing negotiations on local pay and conditions;[…] seking to monitor the abuse of labour conditions in multinational corporations, Outcome von CBCR Murphy, R: Holding multinational … 2009, <http://www.bibsonomy.org/bibtex/763102cbcd423a097b5d671ad0b5457e>


For local suppliers and customers […]This measure provides an assessment of the risk local suppliers take in providing it with credit. If that commitment is low then this places a burden ofrisk on local small businesses thatare at risk of not being paid if the local subsidiary of the multinational corporation is allowed to fail. Outcome von CBCR Murphy, R: Holding multinational … 2009, <http://www.bibsonomy.org/bibtex/763102cbcd423a097b5d671ad0b5457e>


For economists and regulators […]credibly hard to collect reliable data upon it at either a corporate, country or international level. Country-by-country reportingwill assist collection of this data. As such it is very likely that world trade will be better regulated, the international economy will be better understood and economic management will be improved for the benefit of all who live in the world. Outcome von CBCR Murphy, R: Holding multinational … 2009, <http://www.bibsonomy.org/bibtex/763102cbcd423a097b5d671ad0b5457e>


For tax authorities […]What it does do is provide data that the tax departments in question can use to assess the likely risk that existswithin the accounts of a multinational corporation. They can do this by:a.Assessing the likelihood of risk within the group structure;b.Reviewing the overall allocation of profits to countries within the group to see if there is indication of systemic bias towards low tax jurisdictions;c.Assessing whether the volume and flows of intra-group trading disclosed by country-by-country reportingsuggest that this outcome is achieved as a result of mispricing of that trade;d.Using that information to assess where that abuse is most likely to occur so that an appropriate challenge can be raised Outcome von CBCR Murphy, R: Holding multinational … 2009, <http://www.bibsonomy.org/bibtex/763102cbcd423a097b5d671ad0b5457e>


Outcome von CBCR


Auswirkung[Bearbeiten]

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simple process of measuring something changes the behaviour of the behaviour being measured Note Accountants and economists appear to have little appreciation of the understanding that physicists developed as long ago as 1927 that the simple process of measuring something changes the behaviour of the behaviour being measuredxvi. There is no doubt that the introduction of countrybycountry reporting would have significant macroeconomic implications. Some of these are explored here. Auswirkung http:// www.taxresearch.org.uk/ Documents/ CBC2012.pdf


It is exactly that logic that countrybycountry reportingopposes. Countrybycountry reportingassumes multinational corporationscan do good in the world, but that they also impose risk. Getting that risk reward ratio right requires judgment, by management and by others who wish to determine whether management has exercised sound judgment. In very many ways, as noted in this report, countrybycountry reportingcan help that process of judgment and review and so contribute to the process of stewardship that is at the core of good management.And that is why we need countrybycountry reporting. Auswirkung http:// www.taxresearch.org.uk/ Documents/ CBC2012.pdf


The value of corporate reporting will be enormously increased as a result. Auswirkung Murphy, R: Holding multinational … 2009, <http://www.bibsonomy.org/bibtex/763102cbcd423a097b5d671ad0b5457e>


Akteure/Standarts[Bearbeiten]

CBCR wird heute von vielen relevanten Akteueren diskutiert. Die konkreten Vorschläge varieren sehr stark.

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IAS (International Accounting Standart) Akteure/Standarts


IASB (International Accounting Standart Board). In noting that the IASB has chosen to ignore a very wide range of interests when defining what it sees as theuse of the general purpose financial statements produced by multinational corporations it is important to understand that it has in the process chosen to ignore the stated objectives of the International Accounting Standards Board’s parent body –the International Accounting Standards Foundation that says in its constitution URL http:// www.taxresearch.org.uk/ Documents/ CBC2012.pdf Akteure/Standarts


IASF (International Accounting Standart Foundation): inal_CbyC_Report_Published.pdf The International Accounting Standards Board is a privately funded bodybased in London, which isheavily influenced by the Big 4 firms of chartered accountants16, andwhich hasbeen given extraordinary powers to create accounting regulations which have the effective power of law in more than 100 countries in the worldsince 2005. (Murphy, R: Holding multinational … 2009, <http://www.bibsonomy.org/bibtex/763102cbcd423a097b5d671ad0b5457e> Akteure/Standarts


UKs Accounting Commitee Akteure/Standarts


United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Akteure/Standarts


Pricewaterhouse Coupers (Vorschlag: Total Tax Contribution) Akteure/Standarts


9.4.International Financial Reporting Standard URL http:// www.taxresearch.org.uk/ Documents/ CBC2012.pdf Akteure/Standarts


GFI - Global Financial Integrity Akteure/Standarts


What is the EITI? Akteure/Standarts


Time Line[Bearbeiten]

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Time Line


Time Line


Time Line


Time Line


Time Line


Eine gute Timeline hat Deloitte selbst produziert.* Eine gute Timeline hat Deloitte selbst produziert.[2]

[3]

Time Line


Adoption of Directive 2013/ 34/ EU on the annual financial statements, consolidated financial statements and related reports of certain types of undertakings Time Line 2013-06-26 URL http:// ec.europa.eu/ internal_market/ accounting/ country-reporting/


Time Line 2013-06-12 URL http:// ec.europa.eu/ internal_market/ accounting/ country-reporting/


Agreement on disclosure requirements for the extractive industry and loggers of primary forests and on simpler accounting requirements for small companies: Time Line 2013-04-09 URL http:// ec.europa.eu/ internal_market/ accounting/ country-reporting/


The Commission proposes the disclosure of payments to governments by the extractive and forestry industries. Time Line 2011-10-25 URL https:// en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/ Global_Financial_Integrity


GFI urged the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) to implement new safeguards that will greatly improve transparency and cooperation in the global financial system. In early 2010, GFI launched the “G20 Transparency Campaign”, calling for greater transparency in the global financial system. Time Line 2010-01-01 http:// ec.europa.eu/ internal_market/ accounting/ country-reporting/


Public consultation on Country by Country reporting Time Line 2010-10-26


Dodd Frank Act Time Line 2010-01-01


Politik und Gesetzgebung[Bearbeiten]

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Dank einem Zusatz zum "Dodd-Frank Financial Reform Bill" sollen Unternehmen im Rohstoffabbau zu mehr Transparenz gezwungen werden. Politik und Gesetzgebung “9.6.Proposed 2012 EU Legislation on ‘countrybycountry Reporting’ for the Ex.” Richard Murphy, Tax Justice Networ: Country-­by‐Country Reporting. Accounting for globalisation local. Abgerufen am 2014-07-23..


R.M. befürchtet, daß die EU Debatte um das CBCR eher zu einem ungenügenden abgespeckten Resultat, wie im Dodd Frank Act umgesetzt, führt. Politik und Gesetzgebung Zotero. Abgerufen am 2014-07-23.. Richard Murphy, Tax Justice Networ: Country-­by‐Country Reporting. Accounting for globalisation local. Abgerufen am 2014-07-23..


R.M sieht die Reformbemühungen des IASB in Bezug auf den Rohstoffabbau mit Skepsis. Politik und Gesetzgebung Zotero. Abgerufen am 2014-07-23.. Richard Murphy, Tax Justice Networ: Country-­by‐Country Reporting. Accounting for globalisation local. Abgerufen am 2014-07-23..


Politik und Gesetzgebung Richard Murphy, Tax Justice Networ: Country-­by‐Country Reporting. Accounting for globalisation local. Abgerufen am 2014-07-23..





Umsetzung[Bearbeiten]

As this report shows, what all these organisations are asking for is financial data that can only be generated from the accounting systems of the multinational corporations from whom information is being requested. There is no other way in which profit and loss account, cash flow and balance sheet information can be produced. In the circumstances the persistent suggestion made by the International Accounting Standards Board and many other accounting institutes is wrong: unless they are suggesting that duplicate accounts be prepared to disclose countrybycountry reporting data (which is, of course directly contrary to the constitutional obligation of the IASB, noted above) there is no other way to supply countrybycountry reporting data but by including it in general purpose financial reports of multinational corporations. It is for this reason that if the International Accounting Standards Board refuses to undertake the necessary reforms to ensure that this data is disclosed others must take the initiative in undertaking this reform in their place.However looked at though it is obvious that:a.Countrybycountry reportingdata is accounting information;b.It meets needs identified by those who regulate disclosure in financial statements;c.Accounting standards to require its disclosure are, therefore, needed;d.Those standards and disclosures would fit within the regulated framework of accounting and cannot fit anywhere else;e.Countrybycountry reportingis not and cannot be corpora URL http:// www.taxresearch.org.uk/ Documents/ CBC2012.pdf

7.Consolidated accounts are based on information provided by subsidiary companies but additional entries are made during the consolidation process, so it will not be possible to reconcile country-by-country reporting with the published accounts; […]However, as a matter of fact many corporations are already reporting on a country-by-countrybasis. This is a requirement even under International Financial Reporting Standard 8 and it was obligatory under its predecessor, International Accounting Standard 14. (Murphy, R: Holding multinational … 2009, <http://www.bibsonomy.org/bibtex/763102cbcd423a097b5d671ad0b5457e>

Pro/Contra[Bearbeiten]

  • It is also undoubtedly true that someof those who are not in favour of countrybycountry reporting have sought to represent it as things that it has never claime URL http:// www.taxresearch.org.uk/ Documents/ CBC2012.pdf
  • This then ensures that they tooenjoy a view ofthe risks that they face that was previously unavailable. The coincidence of this benefit is not chance; it was designed into countrybycountry reporti URL http:// www.taxresearch.org.uk/ Documents/ CBC2012.pdf
  • Thiscombination means that if risk is better understand the cost of capital will reduce and that has one, inevitable consequence, which is an increase in foreign direct investment URL http:// www.taxresearch.org.uk/ Documents/ CBC2012.pdf
  • The result is tat world trade, trade flows, capital flows, banking, shadow banking, taxhaven activity and related issues would all be capable of being better regulated as a result of the data that countrybycountry reportingcould supply and risks could be reduce URL http:// www.taxresearch.org.uk/ Documents/ CBC2012.pdf
  • Countrybycountry reportingcan help tackle monopoly abuse by:1.Providing data on local monopolies within multinational corporationscurrently unavailable;2.Removing many of the asymmetries of data on world trade that tax havens / secrecy jurisdictions currently provide to the advantage of multinational corporationsable to access them;3.By revealing where excessive rates of return are earned;4.By indicating where investment is, and as importantly is not, taking place;5.By indicating which companies have control of scarce resources and where. URL http:// www.taxresearch.org.uk/ Documents/ CBC2012.pdf
  • t is therefore important to note and respond to the potential counter arguments to countrybycountry reporting. The most common are as follows: a.It will destroy company’s competitive advantages and so harm markets;b.It will be hard to put in place, or to make work properly;c.Companies do not have or could not calculate the necessary data;d.Countrybycountry reporting will not decrease tax avoidance / evasion because firms will use other devices;e.Developing countries do not have enough people or qualified people, to look at countrybycountrybased accounts and therefore will not increase their tax revenues as a result;f.Even with countrybycountry reporting, how to determine the “right” level of transfer pricing is far from obvious, especially on intangibles, meaning that this will not settle the issue;g.Consolidated accounts are based on information provided by subsidiary companies but additional entries are made during the consolidation process, so it will not be possible to reconcile countrybycountry reporting with the published accounts; URL http:// www.taxresearch.org.uk/ Documents/ CBC2012.pdf
  • Each country already requires that all companies submit their accounts for taxation purposes and so no additional information will be secured by those authorities as a result of country by country reporting but a huge flow of information will be published that will be difficult to interpret;i.It will be difficult to audit country by country information;j.In some countries this information is already available, even for subsidiaries located elsewhere;
  • companies, contracts and competitiveness
    • Final_CbyC_Report_Published.pdf It will destroy company’s competitive advantages and so harm markets; (Murphy, R: Holding multinational … 2009, <http://www.bibsonomy.org/bibtex/763102cbcd423a097b5d671ad0b5457e>
    • .The volume of information required to be disclosed betoo great and make financial statements unwieldy;l.A company could be in breach of its legal obligations by publishing countrybycountry reporting datam.The resulting data will simply not be useful –most especially to inve URL http:// www.taxresearch.org.uk/ Documents/ CBC2012.pdf
  • Business efficiency is, as economic theory teaches, dependent upon the availability of high quality inform URL http:// www.taxresearch.org.uk/ Documents/ CBC2012.pdf
    • Note To accept the argument that countrybycountry reporting is harmful to business would require the rejection of the economic theory on which all the logic of markets is based. We presume that is not what is planne URL http:// www.taxresearch.org.uk/ Documents/ CBC2012.pdf Murphy setzt eine Kritik an, die ganz einfach auf einem theoretischen Axiom basiert. Wenn ich das richtig verstehe, geht die Kritik von Murphy am Kern vorbei. Die (vorgeschobene? ) Befürchtung wäre viel mehr, daß durch die veröffentlichten Data zu viel Informationen über das Innenleben der Unternehmen durchsickern, so daß die jeweiligen Erfolgsmodelle leichter kopiert werden können. Dadürch würde es sich nicht mehr lohnen wettbewerbstechnische Vorteile erlangen zu wollen. - sehe ich das richtig oder falshc? Die pauschale Antwort von Murphy darauf ist jedenfalls ungenügend. Es würde vielmehr um eine interne Kritik gehen und zeigen (falls möglich), daß die Befürchtung unfundiert ist. (fragen: wer erhält die Infos, sind die Infos hilfreich, um BI Spionage zu betreiben? )
    • 4. As such, companies are already accustomed to making geographic disclosures in their accounts, and have the proven ability to d URL http:// www.taxresearch.org.uk/ Documents/ CBC2012.pdf
    • okay, R.M. arguementiert: durch transparenz werden besser (fair) funktionierende Märkte geschaffen. isting MNC accountscompletely eliminate all of this trade from public view. CbC shows it all. This is vital if trade relationships are to be understood, and made fair (Murphy, R: Holding multinational … 2009, <http://www.bibsonomy.org/bibtex/763102cbcd423a097b5d671ad0b5457e>
  • Firstly, companies must have this information to ensure they can accurately assess their taxation liabilities URL http:// www.taxresearch.org.uk/ Documents/ CBC2012.pdf
  • Final_CbyC_Report_Published.pdf The greatadvantage of country-by-country reporting being introduced as an International Financial Reporting Standardis that these standards are, by definition, international and already apply in more than 100 countries. In a (Murphy, R: Holding multinational … 2009, <http://www.bibsonomy.org/bibtex/763102cbcd423a097b5d671ad0b5457e>
  • Ich verstehe grundsätzlich nicht so ganz, in welcher beziehung cbcr und ifrs stehen. Außerdem geht Murphys Argumentation auf die Länderebene ein. Nicht die Rede ist von einzelnen Companies: The greatadvantage of country-by-country reporting being introduced as an International Financial Reporting Standardis that these standards are, by definition, international and already apply in more than 100 countries[…] as such we are moving towards an era when there will be an almost uniform requirement for information disclosure. Thus,there will be no disadvantage to any oneparticularcountry from the adoption of country-by-country reporting.(Murphy, R: Holding multinational … 2009. <http://www.bibsonomy.org/bibtex/763102cbcd423a097b5d671ad0b5457e>
  • Permanentestablishments are selfaccounting entities for taxation purposes even if they are not separate legal liability corporations. As such, they have their own books and records and are required to make their own returns of profit and loss to the individual taxation authorities of the countries in which URL http:// www.taxresearch.org.uk/ Documents/ CBC2012.pdf
  • Finish tax evasion?
    • Final_CbyC_Report_Published.pdf 4.It will not decrease tax avoidance / evasion because firms will use other devices; (Murphy, R: Holding multinational … 2009, <http://www.bibsonomy.org/bibtex/763102cbcd423a097b5d671ad0b5457e>
    • It will not. However, transfer Countrybycountry reporting58pricing abuse is considered one of the most important issues in tax avoidance, both by taxation authorities around the world and by tax advisers and their multinational client companies. It is also of enormous concern to developing countries and those who advise them. Indeed it has been suggested that transfer mispricing costs developing countries more in revenue loss than the entire international aid budgetxxvi. URL http:// www.taxresearch.org.uk/ Documents/ CBC2012.pdf7
  • Korruption
  • Developing countries
    • 10.6.Developing countries do not have the resources to use countrybycountry reporting Note dataThe argumentthat developing countries do not have enough people or enough qualified people to look at countrybycountry based accounts thereby implying that countrybycountry reporting will not help increase their tax revenues is deeply patronising, probably wrong, and regardless is able to be remedied through the provision of technical assistance and resources that are required by developing countries. Such assistance would allow these countries to create the necessary capacity within their taxation authorities to tackle transferpricing abuse. Moreover, as countrybycountry reporting will reduce the cost of tackling transferpricing abuse, it would actually aid (not hinder)the efforts of tax authorities in developing Countrybycountry reporting59countries benefit by reducing the scale of the support that they require. As such, this argument does not withstand s URL http:// www.taxresearch.org.uk/ Documents/ CBC2012.pdf
    • Final_CbyC_Report_Published.pdf ocal declaration of economic activity by MNCs with the resulting accountability for taxes paid could break this cycle and help create fully independent, accountable governments capable of raising their own taxation revenues . <-- das ist natürlich ein Argument: daß cbcr überhaupt erst die Entwicklungsländer in die Lage versetzen würde Steuern zu erheben. (Murphy, R: Holding multinational … 2009, <http://www.bibsonomy.org/bibtex/763102cbcd423a097b5d671ad0b5457e>
    • 5.Developing countries do not have enough people or qualified people, to look at country-by-country based accounts and thereforewill not increase their tax revenues as a result;
    • mir kommt es so vor, als würde R.M. hier einach ein neues Projekt (Tax-development-aid) aus dem Hut zaubern, um das erste Projekt realisierbaar zu halten. andregardlessis able to be remedied through the provision oftechnical assistance andresources that are required by developing countries. Such assistance would allow these countriesto create the necessary capacity within their taxation authorities to tackle transfer pricing abuse. 14See ‘Death and Taxes’ Christian Aid 2008Country-by-Country Reporting Task Force on Financial Integrity & Economic Development40Moreover, ascountry-by-country reporting willreduce thecost of tackling transfer pricingabuse, it would actually aid (not hinder) the efforts of tax authorities in developing countriesbenefit by reducing the scale of the support that they require. As such, this argument does not withstand scrutiny. (Murphy, R: Holding multinational … 2009, <http://www.bibsonomy.org/bibtex/763102cbcd423a097b5d671ad0b5457e>
  • 6.Even with country-by-country reporting, how to determine the “right” level of transfer pricing is far from obvious, especially on intangibles, meaning that this will not settle the issue; (Murphy, R: Holding multinational … 2009, <http://www.bibsonomy.org/bibtex/763102cbcd423a097b5d671ad0b5457e>
    • In that case whilst countrybycountry reporting does not say what the “correct” transfer price should be, it does provide some clear indication of whether that objective has been achieved. In so doing, countrybycountry reporting will be an incredibly important tool for a variety of groups: whether for the companies themselves, who can use it to defend their position; for tax authorities, who can use it to inexpensively undertake initial audits of transfer pricing; or for civil society, who want to know who do andwho do not appear to be abusing URL http:// www.taxresearch.org.uk/ Documents/ CBC2012.pdf
  • 10.9.Since companies already have to submit tax returns countrybycountry reporting will provide nothing new for tax au URL http:// www.taxresearch.org.uk/ Documents/ CBC2012.pdf To therefore argue that countrybycountry reporting does not provide additional information to local tax authorities is, as a matter of fact,wrong. Countrybycountry reporting may be the only realistic and cost effective way in which they can obtain information on trade with certain locations where accounts do not need to be put on public URL http:// www.taxresearch.org.uk/ Documents/ CBC2012.pdf
  • 10.10.Countrybycountry reporting data would be hard URL http:// www.taxresearch.org.uk/ Documents/ CBC2012.pdf As a matter of fact, auditors havefor many years reported upon country specific data included in the accounts of multinational corporations because this information has been disclosed under the requirements of International Accounting Standard 14 URL http:// www.taxresearch.org.uk/ Documents/ CBC2012.pdf
  • It is precisely because of this variable access to information that a universal standard for disclosure is required. It appears perverse to argue that just because some countries have better practices than others, those who take advantage of this in order to hide information should ben URL http:// www.taxresearch.org.uk/ Documents/ CBC2012.pdf
  • If anything, this volume of data provides additional incentive for the provision of countrybycountry reporting, and not the opposite, as countrybycountry reporting cuts a path through the complexity to provide local data to those for whom this data is a URL http:// www.taxresearch.org.uk/ Documents/ CBC2012.pdf
  • It hasbeen suggested that a company might be in breach of its legal obligations in a host country within the extractive industries if it were to publish accounting information with regardto that jurisdiction when the MDA that territory required confidentiality for information relating to the URL http:// www.taxresearch.org.uk/ Documents/ CBC2012.pdf

Frage/Probleme/Überlegungen[Bearbeiten]

  • verstehe ich auch nicht: das lokal ausgewiesene profitniveau kann ja durch tricks klein gemacht werden. Ich hätte gedacht man brauchte das weltweite profitniveau ... by comparing the locally reported level of profit with the reported level of current tax due, thereby allowingthe calculation of the effective current local tax rate. If the effective tax rateis much lower than the local published tax rate it becomes fairlyobvious that some form of tax planning is going on. (Murphy, R: Holding multinational … 2009, <http://www.bibsonomy.org/bibtex/763102cbcd423a097b5d671ad0b5457e> jetzt etwas klarer: company bezahlt versch. taxes (zb mwst, soz vers. , ...) --> alles zusammen ergibt beitrag zur gemeinschaft assessment of the total value of payments a companyshouldbemakingto a governmentin a particular period. (Murphy, R: Holding multinational … 2009, <http://www.bibsonomy.org/bibtex/763102cbcd423a097b5d671ad0b5457e>
  • nicht ganz klar was gemeint ist, wieso ist das bisher nicht klar? --> identifya corporation’s direct contribution(in the form of tax payment)to a country’s national interest, (Murphy, R: Holding multinational … 2009, <http://www.bibsonomy.org/bibtex/763102cbcd423a097b5d671ad0b5457e>
  • Final_CbyC_Report_Published.pdf ny MNCs resist disclosure of information on what they pay because of competitive pressure, contractual obligations and local political opposition. CbC would overcome these objections, significantly enhancing transparency in this sector, and help cut corruption. <-- Mir ist überhaupt nicht klar, inwiefern CbCr dieses Probleme überwindet. Werden Verträge etwa ungültig, Wettbewebsdruck niedriger??? okay, durch CBCR würden alle unter dieselben Bedingungen geraten. (Murphy, R: Holding multinational … 2009, <http://www.bibsonomy.org/bibtex/763102cbcd423a097b5d671ad0b5457e>
  • sollte es cbcr geben, würde dies die Notwendigkeit bedeuten, daß jedes beteiligte Land eine funktionierende Steuerinfrastruktur hat Note Tax information would need to be analysed by country in more depth requiring disclosure of the following for each country in which the corporation operates: URL http:// www.taxresearch.org.uk/ Documents/ CBC2012.pdf
  • dreck fuhler: post ware capitalism Note The golden era of post ware capitalism from 1945 to 1973 was based on cheap oil and the hope of limitless nucle URL http:// www.taxresearch.org.uk/ Documents/ CBC2012.pdf
  • Note The risk inherent in internal supply chains will become apparen URL http:// www.taxresearch.org.uk/ Documents/ CBC2012.pdf Verstehe ich nicht. Können die das inter nicht sowieso die ganze Zeit? Oder sind die Investoren von Außen gemeint?
  • Überlegung: je mehr Informationen die Shareholder bekommen, desto größer wird deren Einfluß --> wird dadurch nicht gleichzeitig der shar-holder value Kapitalismus gestärkt? Note Your stakeholders will be looking for more and clearer information on your tax Countrybycountry reporting51affairs.They want to see high quality information in three broad areas:•tax strategy and risk management•taxnumbers and performance•total tax contribution and the wider impac URL http:// www.taxresearch.org.uk/ Documents/ CBC2012.pdf
  • This reconciliation statement is not considered to be a weakness withincountrybycountry reporting: it is considered to be perhaps the most important piece of information that the reporting would make available. For example: if many of the banks that required national government support during the autumn of 2008 had reported their affairs on a countrybycountry basis, then those governments would have had a better basis to appraise the inherent risk within each company’s structure –potentially averting the ensuing credit crisis thereby saving a substantial amount of public URL http:// www.taxresearch.org.uk/ Documents/ CBC2012.pdf --> Was ist ein reconciliation statement?
  • Countrybycountry reporting won’t reconcile with underlying data of subsidiary companies in extractive industries Note Geht es auch hier nicht darum, daß es schwer möglich sein dürfte, diese Daten überhaupt zu erheben? Ich glaube, ich verstehe den Kritikpunkt selbst nicht so ganz. URL http:// www.taxresearch.org.uk/ Documents/ CBC2012.pdf





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References[Bearbeiten]

  1. Final_CbyC_Report_Published.pdf. Abgerufen am 2014-02-03..
  2. deloitte: Country-by-country reporting. Abgerufen am 2014-02-03..
  3. OECD discussion draft considers country-by-country reporting. Abgerufen am 2014-03-04..