Benutzer:Nils Simon/Klimatologie/Meere

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Diese Seite dient zur Sammlung von wissenschaftlichen Artikeln, die sich mit dem Zusammenspiel von globaler Erwärmung und den Ozeanen beschäftigen.

In welchem Ausmaß erwärmen sich die Meere? Was bedeutet diese Erwärmung für das Ökosystem? Welche Folgen hat die Versauerung durch die Aufnahme von Kohlenstoff? Und wie stark werden die Meeresspiegel ansteigen?

Der gemessene Anstieg des Meeresspiegels zwischen 1900 und 2000 beträgt 18,5 cm und erhöht sich weiter.

2007[Bearbeiten]

Le Quere et al.[Bearbeiten]

accepted: 2. Mai

Le Quere, Corinne, Christian Rödenbeck, Erik T. Buitenhuis et al. (2007): Saturation of the Southern Ocean CO2 Sink Due to Recent Climate Change, in: Science, online veröffentlicht am 17. Mai, doi:10.1126/science.1136188

"Based on observed atmospheric CO2 concentration and an inverse method, we estimate that the Southern Ocean sink of CO2 has weakened between 1981 and 2004 by 0.08 PgC/y per decade relative to the trend expected from the large increase in atmospheric CO2. This weakening is attributed to the observed increase in Southern Ocean winds resulting from human activities and projected to continue in the future. Consequences include a reduction in the efficiency of the Southern Ocean sink of CO2 in the short term (~25 years) and possibly a higher level of stabilization of atmospheric CO2 on a multicentury time scale"

2006[Bearbeiten]

Lyman et al.[Bearbeiten]

20. September:

Lyman, John M., Josh K. Willis und Gregory C. Johnson (2006): Recent Cooling of the Upper Ocean, in: Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 33, L18604, doi:10.1029/2006GL027033, 20. September (PDF, 3,5 MB)

"We observe a net loss of 3.2 (± 1.1) × 1022 J of heat from the upper ocean between 2003 and 2005. Using a broad array of in situ ocean measurements, we present annual estimates of global upper-ocean heat content anomaly from 1993 through 2005. Including the recent downturn, the average warming rate for the entire 13-year period is 0.33 ± 0.23 W/m2 (of the Earth's total surface area). A new estimate of sampling error in the heat content record suggests that both the recent and previous global cooling events are significant and unlikely to be artifacts of inadequate ocean sampling."

<ref name="Lyman et al. 2006">Lyman, John M., Josh K. Willis und Gregory C. Johnson (2006): ''Recent Cooling of the Upper Ocean'', in: Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 33, L18604, doi:10.1029/2006GL027033, 20. September [http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/~lyman/Pdf/heat_2006.pdf (PDF, 3,5 MB)]</ref>

Ruttiman[Bearbeiten]

31. August:

Ruttiman, Jacqueline (2006): Sick Seas, in: Nature, Vol 442, 31. August, S. 978-980, doi:10.1038/442978a.

"The rising level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is making the world’s oceans more acidic. Jacqueline Ruttimann reports on the potentially catastrophic effect this could have on marine creatures."

<ref name="Ruttiman 2006">Ruttiman, Jacqueline (2006): ''Sick Seas'', in: Nature, Vol 442, 31. August, S. 978-980, doi:10.1038/442978a.</ref>

NSF, NOAA und USGS[Bearbeiten]

Juni:

NSF, NOAA und USGS (2006): Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Coral Reefs and Other Marine Calcifiers: A Guide for Future Research (PDF, 9,9 MB)

kein Abstract.

<ref name="NSF, NOAA, USGS 2006">NSF, NOAA und USGS (2006): ''Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Coral Reefs and Other Marine Calcifiers: A Guide for Future Research'' [http://www.ucar.edu/communications/Final_acidification.pdf (PDF, 9,9 MB)]

WBGU[Bearbeiten]

Wissenschaftlicher Beirat der Bundesregierung Globale Umweltveränderungen (2006): Die Zukunft der Meere – zu warm, zu hoch, zu sauer. Sondergutachten, Berlin (PDF, 3,5 MB)

kein Abstract.

<ref name="WBGU 2006">Wissenschaftlicher Beirat der Bundesregierung Globale Umweltveränderungen (2006): ''Die Zukunft der Meere – zu warm, zu hoch, zu sauer''. Sondergutachten, Berlin [http://www.wbgu.de/wbgu_sn2006.pdf (PDF, 3,5 MB)]</ref>

2005[Bearbeiten]

Royal Society[Bearbeiten]

Juni:

The Royal Society (2005): Ocean acidification due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide. Policy Document 12/05 (PDF, 1,1 MB)

<ref name="Royal Society 2005">The Royal Society (2005): ''Ocean acidification due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide''. Policy Document 12/05 [http://www.royalsoc.ac.uk/displaypagedoc.asp?id=13539 (PDF, 1,1 MB)]</ref>

Meehl et al.[Bearbeiten]

18. März:

Meehl, Gerald A., Warren M. Washington, William D. Collins, Julie M. Arblaster, Aixue Hu, Lawrence E. Buja, Warren G. Strand und Haiyan Teng (2005): How Much More Global Warming and Sea Level Rise?, in: Science, 18. März, Vol. 307, No. 5716, S. 1769 - 1772, siehe Abstract online

"Two global coupled climate models show that even if the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere had been stabilized in the year 2000, we are already committed to further global warming of about another half degree and an additional 320% sea level rise caused by thermal expansion by the end of the 21st century. Projected weakening of the meridional overturning circulation in the North Atlantic Ocean does not lead to a net cooling in Europe. At any given point in time, even if concentrations are stabilized, there is a commitment to future climate changes that will be greater than those we have already observed."

<ref name="Meehl et al. 2005">Meehl, Gerald A., Warren M. Washington, William D. Collins, Julie M. Arblaster, Aixue Hu, Lawrence E. Buja, Warren G. Strand und Haiyan Teng (2005): ''How Much More Global Warming and Sea Level Rise?'', in: Science, 18. März, Vol. 307, No. 5716, S. 1769 - 1772, siehe Abstract [http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/307/5716/1769 online]</ref>