Hallo Tanushree, herzlich willkommen bei Wikiversity, im Rahmen der Lehrveranstaltung Welterbe, Kulturgüterschutz und Kommunikation (Sommeruniversität 2016).
Wenn du Fragen hast, welche den Umgang mit Wikimedia betrifft, dann kannst du Dich an die Tutoren, Karl Gruber und Heinz Egger wenden, ansonsten die beiden Lehrveranstaltungsleiter Friedrich Schipper und Kurt Luger (siehe Kummerkasten!). --Heinz E. (Diskussion) 23:24, 9. Aug. 2016 (CEST)
Beethoven was born and brought up in Germany. He did not have a smooth childhood. His father was usually harsh to him which brought him closer to his grand-father. He came to Vienna on invitation of his colleagues. However, he could not go back to Germany because the conditions in Germany turned worst. He further invited his three brothers from Germany to Vienna. As Beethoven was not writing for anyone in particular/ under influence of commissioners, he grew popular among Viennese people. Rich people supported him financially. He had many houses across Vienna. At one point of time in his life, he had developed hearing problems and his doctors advised him to live in Heilingenstadt because this place was famous for healing power. Air was good and so was the water. During his troubled years, he turned arrogant because he was not sure if ever he would be able to hear properly again. In Beethoven Haus, he lived in 1817. Beethoven Wohnung houses his compositions and paintings depicting various associations of his life. There exists also his mask.
Guided tour in Vienna[Bearbeiten]
University of Vienna was founded in 1365. The older building was near Schwedenplatz and the new building is in Shottentor-Universitat. The tour started from here to around the city. The tour contents vary according to the knowledge of the audience on that subject. The Glacis and the Wall around the city was 500 m wide, made for the purpose of defense. These walls were destroyed to create the ringstrasse and last year was the 150 years’ anniversary celebration. All construction around ringstrasse took 40 years to complete. The houses in this area were very expensive and therefore only rich people could move here, mostly Jewish trade families. It was a status symbol back then to be living in close proximity of Habsburgs’ palace.
Volksgarten was made open to public from last 200 years. Each year plants can be sponsored in this garden for a price of 300 euros per plant for which a memorial plate could be tagged along with the plant. The temple of Thessor in the neo classical style adds to the beauty. However, the sculpture of Thessor is now in Kunsthistorisches Museum. Sissi’s statue, symbolizing her personality, was made in 1900. She got a letter of personal freedom with which she could travel anywhere she likes. The attitude of Franz Josef changed after she got this letter.
Mozart was born in Salzburg and started composing at the age of 15. Bishop gave him money to come to Vienna. Mozart moved to Mozart Haus at the age of 27. He could compose six pages in a day. He composed mostly during nights, which often made his neighbors angry. He was a celebrated singer and also performed in Hofburg. In 1984, was released a movie on Mozart which later was awarded an Oscar. This movie talks about the conspiracy around his death. Doctors say he died of fever. However, many believe that he was poisoned. The real reason could not be found out. Nevertheless, he was in debt when he died. The Mozart Haus was turned into a museum in 1941. He was always living in the centre of the city but he never saved any money.
City tour by the Turkish guide mentioned how her views changed about the city over a period of time. Tower of St. Stephan’s cathedral had a half moon and star symbol from the beginning of the 16th century. For Catholics, it represents St. Mary and for Ottomans, it is the symbol of their empire. There was difference of opinions on this topic. Now this symbol makes the most beautiful object of Dom Museum. In 1679, was a huge plague epidemic in Vienna. King Leopold got Pillar of Plague, Pestsaule, made upon end of plague from Vienna.
A talk at the Austrian Commission for UNESCO gave insight to the protection laws of cultural heritage. Intangible culture forms expression of knowledge, traditions of single person or community, and of religions. It forms five different parts: language and oral tradition, traditions and ritual of society, knowledge and traditions according to nature and universe, crafts, and applied arts. Task of national UNESCO organizations is to list all different cultural intangible heritage in the form of database. Most sites in Austria were declared UNESCO sites in 1990s. There is a committee called ‘Fachbeirats’ (Committee of experts) who decides which intangible cultural heritage should be included in UNESCO intangible cultural list. This committee has experts from different organizations.
Vienna Museum: Development of city of Vienna, guided tour by Christina Strahner: On the three floors of the Vienna museum we could see three models of the town: one medieval (1440), one baroque and one of the 19th century (1888). In the medieval collection we could see original statues from the facades of St. Stephen and original glass windows (stained glass) from the St. Bartholomys capek in St. Stephens. These were brought there by Friedrich von Schmidt after his historistic renovation of St. Stephen in the 19th century. There we saw as well panel paintings which could have once been part of a polydyptich night St. Stephen. In the medieval model of the city we saw the entrance to the city, Swiss gate of the Hofburg. On the model we could still see the synagogue. The river Wien was crossing the Karlsplatz in those times and a lot of other rivers were still running in the city center. The Barbenberger King Leopold VI brought French craftsmen to Vienna who build the Virgil chapel near St. Stephen in 1220. There are but very few remains of medieval architecture in Vienna. The bridge at Schwedenplatz was one of the very first to be built. Another medieval chapel was the Mary Magdalena's chapel. The building costs of the city walls were covered by the ransom received from the English kingdom for releasing their King. Richard Lionheart was kidnapped in Austria on his return from the crusades in Jerusalem. The next big changes were done in the 16th/17th century when the new city wall was built in defense from the Ottomans. There was a big wall (Bastie) around the city, the Glacis, a wide open space, and around the suburbs there was the Linienwall of incredible length. In the 19th century the inner city walls were deconstructed and the Ringstrasse was built following the model of the big boulevards of cities like Paris. For the defense of the city, they built 4 barracks (Franz Joseph Kaserne, Arsenal, Schmelz, Rossauer Kaserne). Throughout history, a lot of bridges were made and destroyed. Nevertheless, Vienna today has the maximum number of bridges it ever had.
Visit to the Vienna Museum: The Vienna museum contains: paintings, clothing, sculptures, arms and armor, pottery, books, parts of St. Stephens cathedral, the furniture of Loos and Grillpartzer and many more. The temporary exhibition speaks about the history of Vienna’s Prater.
Discussion on the city development and a new skyscraper in the third district of Vienna: In the area of the hotel intercontinental and the Eislaufverein, there are plans for a new skyscraper. ICOMOS advised that the building of such a high skyscraper would destroy the free view of the city center. It could be that the building of the skyscraper could lead to the removal of the Viennese city center from the UNESCO heritage list. NGOs are fearing that the Viennese population would not be able to afford buying the flats in the skyscraper and that rich foreigners would buy these flats. The fears center about the idea that the Viennese people would be disconnected from the heart of their city. The original project of a 74 m height skyscraper was lowered to a 60 m height project in the last years. The Vizebaudirektor indicates that there is no maximum height mentioned in the contract that Austria has signed with the UNESCO. This Vizebaudirektor says that Vienna has always changed throughout history and it should continue to do so. He hopes that the skyscraper is built soon.
Archaeological center of Vienna: The rise of public awareness about the archaeological sites in Vienna by the archaeological center: The archaeological center was a part of the MA 7 cultural department. Nowadays, they still get money from there and work close together. They aim to spread information about archaeological excavation and Viennese cultural heritage. There is a specific manager supervising the implementation of construction of each site. They are working in close collaboration with Vienna museum. When there is a construction site in Vienna, the archaeology center takes the chance to do excavation there. They already found objects from over 7000 years in the third district. The oldest objects they found were from Bronze Age, the youngest from 19th century. The photographic documentation is always important. They published three different journals. As well they organize an annual conference, Cultural heritage and new technology is the coming one, it would be on 16-18th November, 2016. Archaeology inculcates a feeling of belonging with the city as it connects the present with the history. To increase interest in archaeology, they do a lot of outreach activities with schools by showing roman and medieval objects to the children.
The role of digitalization and databases in the communication of cultural heritage (Wolfgang Börner): Any authentic site that has potential to convey cultural richness to the international community and can be conserved comes under the legal criteria to become a protected site under UNESCO. On the webpage, wien.at, members of the archaeological centre have created a map of Viennese cultural heritage and archaeological excavation sites. This map is based on an original map from 1819. Historic as well as modern city map of Vienna, age of important buildings and the location of archaeological findings could be seen in various layers over the digital copy. An elaborated talk on efficient use of the website was provided.
Schönbrunn zoo and Schönbrunn castle[Bearbeiten]
The Schönbrunn Zoo: Tour was given by Dr. Handl. The zoo was founded in 1752 by the family of Habsburg-Lothringen. The baroque architecture of this oldest zoo was the striking point to bring it on the UNESCO list. It is worldwide the oldest zoo which has been consistently in its function. Till 1918 it was in private possession of the royal family, afterwards from 1921 to 1991 it belonged to the Austrian government and since 1991 it is managed by the Schönbrunn Tiergarten GmbH. At the moment there are 5700 animals in the zoo.
Marketing of Schönbrunn: Schönbrunn has 2.2 million visitors every year. Their advertising marketing includes city lights, posters, social media and co-operations with the Vienna tourism and Austria advertisement. Schönbrunn zoo coordinated with Samsung mobiles in a mutually profitable deal where Nonja, one of the ape, was given a Samsung phone and every picture she took of herself was publicized through her Facebook page. Within six weeks, this gained much attention by news channels and Nonja became a 'celebrity'. This helped Samsung to publicize its mobile phone fast and it brought the zoo many more visitors. The successful management of Schönbrunn zoo allows them to carry more than 12000 visitors a day.
The Schönbrunn Castle: We had an audio guide tour through the rooms in the castle. Some students proclaimed that the information given during the audio guide tour would not be sufficient to Austrian visitors. We thought it was enough for having an interesting visit and having an impression about the Austrian empire. According to one argument, the time allowed inside the Schönbrunn castle with a regular ticket is not enough. However, in consideration of the limit of number of visitors, that is 1000 people per hour, and the area of the castle, this is justified.
The Schönbrunn Children Museum: The children museum was founded 14 years ago and since 1994 they gave guided tours to children from age group 6-10. The concept of the museum seems to match the expectations of the children very much as they were happily participating in various activities. This was an opportunity to see the portraits of children of the Habsburgian family. The advertising management plan contains mailings to school classes, organizing children's birthdays in Schönbrunn and many more. The staff has trained itself to take tour of the DAZ (German as second language) children so that required vocabulary and understanding could be communicated to them efficiently. The museum is now endeavoring to get funding to be able to implement this function. The rooms of the children museum were restored in the year 2000.
The lecture on successful management of cultural heritage by Markus Wiesenhofer: In the show rooms of Schönbrunn castle,10000 visitors enter every day. To lower the volume in the rooms, groups have to use audio systems. Tour guides receive a special security training. They get as well disaster management trainings and practice evacuations of the building. The Apothekertrakt was changed into a modern conference center with 10 seminar rooms. It is used for conferences, marriages and events. In the castle there are 150 private flats as well as offices and workshops. The management plan centers around the goal of staying the leading company on the 'Imperial Austria' and 'Sisi Museum'. A conference on the conservation of the East Asian cabinets was held here in December 2015. The University of Applied Arts is actively involved in the restoration of Schönbrunn castle.
Guided tour in Salzburg[Bearbeiten]
Tourist guide education takes two years in Salzburg. Additionally, a state license exam needs to be qualified. Salzburg has been an important city for the trade of salt, gold and silver. Mirabel garden, city center, the Salzach river, the Kapitelkirche as well as the dome square are of great significance. The Mirabel castle was built by the bishop Wolf Dietrich Von Reichenau. Pope accounted these bishops as legal holders of his power who regulated the city on his behalf. They were very wealthy and powerful from 16th to 18th century. In the 19th century river Salzach was regulated and new 19th century villas were built at its edges.
Discussion with UNESCO and city council members about a building project on Dr. Franz-Rehrl Platz: Prof. Wagner, president of city council, Christoph, resident of the square (co-author with Prof. Luger in a book on this subject) and Alexander Würfel Jurist, lawyer in building construction and city responsible for UNESCO in Salzburg are in favor of preserving the city centre in its existing appearance to fulfil the UNESCO guidelines. Citizens want to be involved in the activities of preservation but in the post democratic society, people do not get enough information to participate in the political decisions. They often make their NGOs and try to work in protection of their heritage. Citizens made a letter with numerous signatures for stopping the modern building project but the voices of so many citizens were not enough to stop the project.
This was followed by a lecture by Prof. Kurt Luger who gave an insight into the historic city of Salzburg, its cultural significance and role of marketing strategies in increasing the tourism in the UNESCO city of Salzburg. He emphasized how music festivals still play the same topics each year from one century which makes these festivals very attractive to the tourists. The well led cultural organizations of Salzburg managed to increase the output received from tourism each and every year. As an example, all museums generate 93 million euros per year. The contribution of 'Sound of Music' adds much business to the Mozart city. The UNESCO cultural tourism brings communities closer and inculcates the feeling of humanity. Thus tourism and heritage are important aspects in growing human societies.
The guided tour in the museum gave us an idea about how heritage and tourism are managed in the Salzburg city. Friedrich Urban, Intendant of the 200 years Salzburg with Austria jubilee, names the three pillars of the organization. Firstly, it is very important that the city and the provinces are working together so that people in the villages feel connected to their city. Secondly, the cultural institutions and the museums should work in cooperation so they could organize more meaningful festivals together. Thirdly, he underlines Salzburg’s development in the society. He believes that the new year concert in Salzburg gives its people a feeling of togetherness. He proposes that Salzburg could further improve its image as a city of music by maintaining its cultural significance. During the jubilee year, the theater festival will show plays of Thomas Bernhardt. There have been already 15 publications on this theme and in the jubilee year 5 more books have been released. One of them is called 'People of Salzburg'. On the 1st floor, objects of the Salzburg Museum are on display. The exhibition was called "Erzähl Mir Salzburg" and shows tales concerning Salzburg. In the basement are objects taken on loan. Most of the objects are kept in climate controlled conditions and photography is prohibited due to copyright issues. In a room at the ground floor is presented the history of Salzburg. There are video installations showing 8 important places of Salzburg’s history, recorded over one year by different photographers. A timeline with events in Salzburg as well as in Austria and the world history is drawn on a circular bench.
Studio tour and discussion with Hannes Eichmann: Visited the studio room including the green box, which is used on rare occasions with different backgrounds, and the director’s room. Servus TV works in cooperation with the Red Bull media house. They offer 18 months’ trainee program in different areas, such as marketing, research, and human resource. They take 20 interns per year for their Internship program. This TV channel shows cultural heritage, mostly popular culture, through its programs. Only 5% of people in Europe listen to radio with cultural subjects and a very small part of the governmental budget is spent on culture radio. Salzburg theatre festival takes a lot of media attention. It is broadcasted over 150 radios and TV stations worldwide.
Guided tour in the city center of Salzburg with Mühlfellner, Jana Breuste: We visited different parts of Salzburg University, in the building at Rudolfskai, there is a continuous connection between the old and new parts. Since 1980s, there were discussions about building a University park outside the city. This park was built in Nonntal. There was a conflict between people who wanted to preserve the spaces of free nature outside Salzburg, and others who wanted to build the University park. In former times, police stations, offices and administrative buildings, and a lot of shops had been situated in the city center. Most of these institutions were moved out of the city center in recent years.
Another University building is situated in an old citizen house. These houses had a rectangular structure. In the front a shop was facing the street. The back parts of the house were used for storage and the living space for the families. Later on the architecture of the house was changed so that the front and the back of the house could reach the same height. A shop facing the back street was created. In the 20th century, an architecture adopted the building which had been in the poor state to its new purpose as a University building. The facades had been partially closed with glass. A huge glass door was built in front of one of the walls. The door could be opened to connect the inside coffee shop with the outdoor coffee shop space. In the upper floors, Institute of Communication Science was situated before it was moved to the Rusolfskai building where we find it today.
Jana Breuste talks about the Architect Jacob Jacuni. He has built printing shop in the first floor of the building. In the Hotel Stein he has created a staircase which is now under heritage protection (BDA). Nowadays architects do a lot to adapt his staircase to the modern building security laws which according to the art historian is in vain. His building projects have no such importance according to Breuner. Other visited sites were Papagenoplatz, Mönchsberg mit Feste und Stupa, and the Stadtalm.
After lunch we returned to the seminar room in Salzburg University to get a short introduction on how to use Wikiversity.